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槭树下的家 发表于 2014-10-20 20:56:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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对阅读的提高很有帮助呢,求加分,加米~~~~




1.Totally without light and subjected tointense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface,thedeep—ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans,in someways as forbidding and remote as the void of outer space.
(定语后置insome ways…)
由于完全没有光,而且承受着比在地球表面大数百倍的极大压力,深海底部对人类而言是一个充满敌意的环境,在某些方面就像外层空间一样险恶和遥远。

Totally without light and subjected tointense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface 原因状语
the deep—ocean bottom is a hostileenvironment to humans 主句
in some ways as forbidding and remote asthe void of outer space 后置定语,修饰a hostile environment to humans
整个句子结构是:
原因状语+主句+后置定语
这是一个主句前后分别有状语和定语的修饰成分,但是不是复合句。句子的核心意思是深海对于人类而言是一个充满敌意的环境。

2.Basic to any understanding of Canadain the 20 years after the Second World War is the country's impressivepopulation growth.
(倒装结构Basicto any understanding…is…)
要理解二战之后20年中的加拿大,就必须了解该国惊人的人口增长。
该句的正常语序是Thecountry's impressive population growth is basic to any understanding of Canadain the 20 years after the Second World War.
本句是一个简单句,只不过使用了倒装,谓语动词是is.

3.As a result,claimsthat eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents orcures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widelypublicized and form the basis for folklore.
(同位语从句claims that…)
本句的主句结构是claimshave become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore. 那些观点广为人知,并成为一些民间说法的基础。

同位语从句是thateating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or curesdisease or provides other benefits to health:只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康

本句的机构是主句内部嵌套一个同位语从句,
结果,那些认为只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康的观点广为人知,并成为一些民间说法的基础。

4.There are numerous unsubstantiatedreports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones,thatfertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs,thatuntreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.

(并列同位语从句reportsthat…that…that…)
关于天然维生素优于人造维生素,受精蛋比未受精蛋的营养价值更高,未经熏蒸消毒处理的谷物比经过处理的好等等报道屡见不鲜,但都没有得到证实。


5·The desperate plight of the South haseclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also in the North,thoughless spectacularly.
(同位语从句factthat…)
南方极为严重的困境使北方同样需要开始重建(尽管不像南方那么引人注目)这一事实显得不太重要。

6·The new accessibility of land aroundthe periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estatedevelopment and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl.
(宾语从句whatwe now know as)
现在可以获得这些环绕几乎每个大城市边缘地区的土地,这一可能性激发了一场房地产开发的热潮并造成了我们现在称为城区无计划扩展的现象。

7.But these factors do not account forthe interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration ofpregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of givingbirth.
(of结构作定语:ofhow there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs…)
但这些因素并不能解释这个有趣的问题:为何在一个特定的地点会如此集中地出现即将临产的怀孕鱼龙群。

8.Amid rumors that there wereprehistoric mammoths wandering around the unknown region and that somewhere inits wilds was a mountain of rock salt 80 by 50 miles in extent,the twocaptains set out.
(同位语从句rumorsthat…)
当时有一些传言,说有史前的猛犸在这一陌生的区域活动,而且在这一区域的某个地方有一座巨大的盐石山,其面积达80英里长50英里宽。就在这些传言中,两位上尉出发了。

9. In the seventeenth century the organ,the clavichord,andthe harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group,asupremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of theeighteenth century.
(同位语asupremacy)
17世纪时风琴、敲弦琴和拨弦琴成为键盘乐器类的主要成员,这种至高无上的地位一直由它们保持,直到18世纪末被钢琴所取代。

10.A series of mechanical improvementscontinuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction ofpedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame andsteel wire of the finest quality,finally produced an instrument capableof myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almostorchestral fullness of sound,from a liquid,singingtone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.
(介词结构from…to…作定语)
持续到19世纪的一系列机械上的改进,包括引入踏板以维持音调或使其柔和,改善金属框架,以及使用最佳牲能的钢丝,最终产生了一种具备无数音调效果的乐器——这些效果涵盖了从最精致的和声到几乎全部的管弦乐音响,从明快流畅的吟唱音调到尖锐的打击乐器的恢弘气氛。

11.The largest, later named PuebloBonito(Pretty Town)by the Spanish, rose in five terraced stories,containedmore than 800 rooms,andcould have housed a population of 1,000 or more.
(虚拟语气)
最大的一座后来被西班牙人称为PuebloBonito(美丽的城镇),是一个五层梯式楼,有800多问房子,能够容纳1000人以上。

12.Accustomed though we are to speaking ofthe films made before 1927 as “silent”,the film has never been,in thefull sense of the word, silent.
(倒装accustomedthough we are…=though we are accustomed…)
虽然我们习惯于将1927年以前的电影叫做无声电影,但是就无声’’这个词的完整意义上说,电影从未真正的无声过。

13.For a number of years the selectionof music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor orleader of the orchestra,and very often the principalqualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as theownership of a large personal library of musical pieces.
(特殊结构not…SOmuch as…——与其说不如说…)
在好些年内,为各部影片选择配乐的权力完全掌握在乐队指挥或队长手中,而通常担任这种职位的资格与其说是技巧或鉴赏品位,不如说是个人拥有音乐作品的丰富收藏。

14·Coincident with concerns about theaccelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation ofthe importance of biological diversity,the number of species in a particularecosystem,tothe health of the Earth and human well-being.
(倒装coincidentwith concerns…has been…=…has been coincident with concerns…)
在对物种和动物栖息地加速消失表示关注的同时,人们也越来越认识到生物多样化,即一个特定生态系统中物种的数量对地球的健康以及人类幸福的重要性。

15.The fact that half of the knownspecies are thought to inhabit the world's rain forests does not seemsurprising,consideringthe huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species.
(同位语从句factthat…;定语从句thatcomprise the bulk…)
考虑到组成大部分物种的昆虫的巨大数量,认为半数的已知物种栖息在世界的雨林中这一事实看起来并不令人吃惊。

16.To appreciate fully the diversity andabundance of life in the sea,it helps to think small.   
(特殊结构ithelps to…有帮助)
要充分认识海洋生命的多样性和丰富性,从小的角度思考有帮助。

1 7.Science is built with facts just asa house is built with bricks,but a collection of facts cannot becalled science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.
(特殊结构notany more than一样不…)
科学建立在事实上,就像房子用砖砌成一样。但收集的事实不能被叫做科学,就像一堆砖不能被称为房子一样。   

18.The variation between the hemispherescorresponds to which side of the body is used to perform specific activities.
(从句whichside…is used…correspondsto的宾语
两个半球之间的不同与身体的哪一部分用于进行特定的活动是对应的。   

19.In a period characterized by theabandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth,DonaldBarthelme,andThomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedlyold-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality of herfiction.
(特殊结构characterizedby…——为特征)
尽管处于一个以抛弃大量现实主义传统(以作家约翰·巴思、唐纳德·巴塞尔姆和托马斯.品钦为代表)为特征的时代,乔伊斯·卡罗尔·欧茨因为坚持自己小说本质上模仿的特点,有时候看起来是一个坚定的守旧派。

20.If it were not for this faculty,theywould devour all the food available in short time and would probably starvethemselves out of existence.
(虚拟语气)
如果不是具有这种能力,它们就会在短时间内吞掉所有能得到的食物,而且很可能会因饿死而灭绝。

21.Individualism is weakly developed infolk cultures,asare social classes.
(倒装asare social classes)
个人主义和社会阶层在民间文化群体中的发展十分薄弱。

22.People in the United States in thenineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change inthe nation's economy would bring social chaos.
(同位语从句prospectthat…)
19世纪的美国人因为害怕国家经济中史无前例的变化会带来社会混乱这一前景而提心吊胆。

23.Accompanying that growth was a structuralchange that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift inthe nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and othernonagricultural pursuits.
(倒装Accompanyingthat growth was a structural change that…=A structural change…was accompanyingthat growth)
伴随着这一增长的是一个结构变化,它以经济的不断多样化和国家劳动力从农业到制造业和其他非农业职业的逐渐转化为特征。

24.As the roles men and women played insociety became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home.
(倒装sodid…)
随着男人和女人在社会中扮演的角色被限定得更加严格,他们在家中的角色也是如此。
25.Surrounding the column are threesepals and three petals,sometimes easily recognizable as such,oftendistorted into gorgeous,weird,but always functional shapes.
(倒装Surroundingthe column are…)
围绕着蕊柱的是三个萼片和三个花瓣,有时很容易辨认出来,但经常被扭成华丽、
奇特但总是有用的形状。

26.With the growing prosperity brought onby the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it,youngpeople married and established households earlier and began to raise largerfamilies than had their predecessors during the Depression.
(倒装thanhad their predecessors—比较结构的第二部分)
随着二战带来的持续繁荣以及随之而来的经济增长,年轻人比大萧条中的同龄人结婚成家更早,而且养育的家庭比他们的前辈更大。

27.The railroad could be and was adespoiler of nature;furthermore,in itsmanifestation of speed and noise,it might be a despoiler of human natureas well.
(关联结构couldbe and was)
铁路可以,事实上也是自然的掠夺者;而且,在其速度和噪音的表现上也可能是人性的掠夺者。

28.In the railroads' prime years,between1 890 and 1920,therewere a few individuals in the United States,most of them with solid railroadingexperience behind them,whomade a profession of writing about railroading--works offering the ambience ofstations,yards,andlocomotive cabs.
(同位语mostof them;定语从句whomade a profession of writing)
1890年到1920年间铁路的黄金时期,美国有几个人(他们大多有丰富的铁路经验)以写铁路题材为职业——作品围绕车站、停车场和机车。

29.On the other hand,when itcomes to substantive--particularly behavioral-information,crowsare less well known than many comparably common species and,forthat matter,nota few quite uncommon ones:the endangered California condor,to citeone obvious example.
(特殊结构forthat matter)
另一方面,当涉及实质性的,特别是行为方面的信息时,乌鸦就不如许多比较而言很普通的鸟类那样为人所知;而且,也不如许多很不寻常的鸟类,举一个明显的例子,如像濒危的加利福尼亚大秃鹫那样为人所知。

30.Keen observers and quick learners,theyare astute about the intentions of other creatures,includingresearchers,andadept at avoiding them.
(并列同位语keenobservers and quick learners)
乌鸦是敏锐的观察家和快捷的学习者,它们对其他生物(包括研究人员)的意图感觉非常敏锐,并且善于躲开它们。

31.These researchers have sought todemonstrate that their work can be a valuable tool not only of science but alsoof history,providingflesh insights into the daily lives of ordinary people whose existences mightnot otherwise be so well documented.
(宾语从句demonstratethat…;特殊结构otherwise)
这些研究人员已经力图证实他们的工作不仅可以成为科学而且还是历史的宝贵工具,为了解普通人的日常生活提供崭新的观点,否则这些普通人的生存状态不可能被记载得这么好。

32.Legend has it that sometime toward theend of the Civil War(1861--1865)a government train carrying oxen travelingthrough the northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm andhad to be abandoned.
(特殊结构Legendhas it that…=There is a legend that…)
传说在内战(1861--1865)快结束的某个时候,一列载着牛群的政府的火车在穿过怀俄明州东部的北部平原时遇到了暴风雪,因此不得不被遗弃。

33.It is a lifelong process,aprocess that starts long before the start of school and one that should be anintegral part of one's entire life.
(并列同位语aprocess that…andone that…)
教育是一个终生的过程,早在人们上学之前就开始了。它应成为人的一生中不可缺少的一部分。

34.Life's transition from the sea to the landwas perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge as was the genesis of life.
(特殊结构asmuch…as;倒装aswas the genesis of life)
生命从海洋到陆地的过渡可能是一个像生命起源那样的进化挑战。

35.In agriculture,thetransformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators,thecotton presses,thewarehouses,andthe commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation's farmers thevisible sign of a vast conspiracy against them.
(特殊结构markedby;定语从句thatseemed…the visible sign…)
在农业上,这一变化的标志是谷物升降机、皮棉打包机厂、货栈和商品交换的出现,对全国的众多农民来说它们是反对农民的大阴谋的明显标志。

36.And there were factories in occupationssuch as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what wereessentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building.
(where引导定语从句;what引导的从句作presidedover的宾语)
仍然有像金属制造厂一类的工厂,在那里个体承包商管理在同一幢楼里的本质上是手工艺品所有人的工场。

37.But as the number of wage earners inmanufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4million in 1920.thenumber of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphiaburgeoned,asdid the size of the average plant.
(倒装结构asdid…)
但随着制造业中挣工资的人数从1880年的270万上升到1900年的450万到1920年的840万,像费城的包德温机车工厂这样的大型工厂的数量也大幅增加,同时普通工厂的规模也剧增。

38.What we today call American folk art was,indeed,art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday “folks” who, with increasing prosperityand leisure, created a market for art of all kinds.andespecially for portraits.
(what引导的从句作主语;介词结构(art)ofbyandfor…——…所有、所创和所享的(艺术))   
我们今天所称的美国民间艺术确实是被普通民众所有、所创和所享的艺术。随着日渐繁荣和不断增加的空闲,这些民众为各种艺术,尤其是肖像艺术创造了一个市场。   

39.But in the heyday of portraitpainting--from the late eighteenth century until the 1850’s—anyone with a modicum of artistic ability couldbecome a limner as such a portraitist was called.
(as引导方式状语从句)
但是在肖像画的全盛期——18世纪晚期一直到19世纪50年代——任何一个稍有艺术能力的人都能够成为一个绘画者(人们当时就是这样称呼一个肖像画家的)

40.The sculptural legacy that the newUnited States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one,and infact,in1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans andcraftspeople.
(并列句;特殊结构farfrom)
新生的美国从其殖民地时期的先辈那里继承的雕塑遗产远远谈不上丰富,而且,实际上在1776年雕塑作为种艺术形式仍然掌握在手艺人和工匠的手里。

41.0n the rare occasion when a fine pieceof sculpture was desired,Americans turned to foreign sculptors,as inthe 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina,commissionedthe Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt.
(句子主干是Americansturned to foreign sculptors;两个when都引导定语从句:occasionwhen…1770'swhen…as(inthe 1770's)的意思是正如”)
在少数情况下,当需要一件精美的雕刻品时,就像1770年纽约与南卡罗来纳的查尔斯顿城委托英国人约瑟夫·威尔顿制造威廉·皮特的大理石雕像一样,美国人求助于外国人。   

42.Add to this the timidity with whichunschooled artisans—originally trained as stonemasons,carpenters,orcabinetmakers--attacked the medium from which they were to make their images,and oneunderstands more fully the development of sculpture made in the United Statesin the late eighteenth century.
(add tothis the timidity…=add the timidity…to this为祈使句,相当于一个条件句:if one adds to this thetimidity…)
这个再加上没有受过学校教育的艺人——他们最初是被训练为石匠、木匠或家具木工的——对待他们要制作成雕像的媒介物的胆怯,使人更充分地了解18世纪晚期美国雕刻艺术的发展。

43.Instead of trying to keep down the bodytemperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of waterand energy,desertmammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height,andtemperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant'sgazelles.
(what引导的从句作riseto的宾语)
沙漠哺乳动物并不试图将体温控制得很低,因为这么做将会涉及水和能量的消耗,而是允许体温上升到平常是高烧的温度——有人在格兰特羚羊身上曾测到高达46摄氏度的体温。

44.Rent control is the system whereby thelocal government tells building owners how much they can charge their tenantsin rent.
(whereby=bywhich,引导定语从句,表示手段)
租金管制是政府借以告诉房主他们可以收取多少租金的系统。

45.They were spurred by the inflation ofthe 1970's,which,combinedwith California's rapid population growth,pushed housing prices,as wellas rents, to record levels.
(which引导非限定性定语从句)
它们受到了20世纪70年代通货膨胀的刺激,这次通货膨胀与加利福尼亚人口的迅速增长结合在一起,将房价与租金推到了创纪录的水平。

46.Implicit in it is an aesthetic principleas well:thatthe medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with whichsculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony.
(倒装结构Implicitin it is an aesthetic principle as well=An aesthetic principleis implicit in it as wellthat引导的句子做principle的同位语)
其中也蕴涵一个美学原则:用于雕刻的媒介物有一定的美和富于表现力的特性,雕刻家必须使他们自己的审美感与这些特性融为和谐的体。

47.With the turn-of-century Crafts movementand the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration,such aswooden African figures and masks,there arose a new urge for hands-on,personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium.
(therearose…是一个存在句)
随着世纪之交的手工艺运动和非传统灵感源泉(像非洲形体和面具)的发现,出现了一种亲自实践、亲手制作艺术和与媒介物直接接触的新要求。
48.The common kestrel roosts and huntsalone,butthe lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks,possibly so one bird can learn fromothers where to find insect swarms.
(possiblyso=possibly so that)
普通红隼单独栖息和狩猎,但较小的红隼群栖群食,很可能因此一只鸟可以从其他鸟那儿了解到在哪儿可以找到成群的昆虫。

49.In the 1500s when the Spanish moved intowhat later was to become the southwestern United States,theyencountered the ancestors of the modern day Pueblo,Hopi,andZuni peoples.
(when引导定语从句,what引导的从句作movedinto的宾语)
16世纪西班牙人进入后来成为美国西南部的地方时,他们遇到了今天皮艾布鲁人、霍比人和株尼人的祖先。

50.During the 1940's electron microscopesroutinely achieved resolution better than that possible with a visible lightmicroscope, while the performance of x-ray microscopes resisted improvement.
(that指代前面的resolutionpossiblewith a visible 1ight microscopethat的定语)
20世纪40年代,电子显微镜通常比可见光显微镜的分辨能力更强,而X光显微镜的表现却没有改进。

51.What they do is look at familiarconditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish,harmfulor affected.
(what引导主语从句;that引导定语从句)
它们所做的就是从这样一个角度来看待熟悉的环境,使这些环境看上去愚蠢、有害或做作。

52.Satire jars US out of complacence into apleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioninglyaccept are false.
(outof…into…摆脱,进入that引导的从句manyof the values…are falserealization的同位语;weunquestioningly acceptvalues的定语)
讽刺作品使我们摆脱了自满情绪,并在愉快与震惊之中认识到:许多我们毫无疑问地接受的价值观是错误的。

53.With spontaneous irreverence,satirerearranges perspectives.scrambles familiar objects intoincongruous juxtaposition and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstractplatitude.
(and连接并列句)
讽刺作品用自然流露的嘲讽态度再设了视角,将熟悉的事物自相矛盾地置于一起,使用个性化语言,而不是抽象的陈词滥调。

54.It has lived because readers appreciatea refreshing stimulus,anirreverent reminder that they lived in a world of platitudinous thinking, cheapmoralizing, and foolish philoSOPhy.
(that引导的从句作reminder的同位语)
它之所以存在,是因为读者欣赏它使人耳目一新的刺激,它毫不客气地提醒:他们活在一个充满陈腐思想、廉价的道德说教与荒谬哲学的世界里。

55. Soldiers rarely hold the ideals that movies attribute to them, nor doordinary citizens devote their lives to unselfish service of humanity.
(特殊结构attributeto——赋予,归因于;nor放在句首引起倒装)
军人很少拥有人们在电影中赋予他们的那种理想,普通公民也很少奉献他们的生命为人类无私地服务。

56.In addition to having to be a generalistwhile specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field,theresearcher is faced with the problem of primary materials that have little orno documentation.
(what引导的从句作specializingin的宾语)
除了在专攻似乎是一个狭窄领域时不得不成为多面手以外,研究人员还面临着关于原始材料的文献很少或者根本没有这一问题。

57.Moreover,thedegree to which cones are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helpsdetermine which bill design is the best.
(句子主干是thedegree…helps determine…,从句towhich cones are naturally slightly open or tightly closeddegree的定语)
而且球果自然地轻微开口或紧紧关闭的程度有助于确定哪种喙的设计是最好的。

58.It was she,aBaltimore printer,whopublished the first official copies of the Declaration,thefirst copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded thesupport of all thirteen colonies.
(Itwas…who为强调句;thefirst copies为前面thefirst official copies的同位语)
就是她,一位巴尔的摩的印刷商,出版了《独立宣言》的最早的官方版本,即包括《独立宣言》签署者名字并因此预告所有13个殖民地的支持的早期版本。

59.By comparison with these familiaryardsticks,thedistances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,butthey too are made more manageable by using a time calibration,in thiscase the distance that light travels in one year.
与这些熟悉的尺度相比,到太空的距离远得难以理解,但它们也通过使用一个时间的标尺而变得更加容易对付了,在这种情况下是光在一年内走过的距离。

60.he primary reason was skepticism thata railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of desert,mountain,andsemiarid plain could pay a profit.
(that引导的从句作skepticism的同位语)
主要原因是存在一种怀疑主义,人们怀疑途经如此富于挑战性、人口稀疏的大片沙漠、山脉和半干旱平原的一条铁路能否获得利润。

61.The argument that humans,even inprehistoric times,hadsome number sense,atleast to the extent of recognizing the concepts of more and less when someobjects were added to or taken away from a small group,seemsfair.forstudies have shown that some animals possess such a sense.
(复合句,主句的主干是theargument…seems fair,其中从句thathumans…had somenumber senseargument的同位语)
人类甚至在史前已经有数字感,至少到有些物体被加到一小组里或者被拿走时能够辨别出多了还是少了的程度,这一观点似乎很合理,因为研究已经表明有些动物就有这样的意识。

62.A useful definition of an airpollutant is a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to theatmosphere in such quantities as to affect humans, animals,vegetation,ormaterials adversely.
(特殊结构such…asto——如此以致)
空气污染物的一个有用定义是:一种直接或间接加入到空气里的化合物,其数量足以对人类、动物、植物或物质产生不利影响。

63.The acute,growing public awareness of the socialchanges that had been taking place for some time was tied to tremendous growthin popular journalism in the late nineteenth century,includinggrowth in quantity and circulation of both magazines and newspapers.
(awareness…wastied to tremendous growth…为句子主干)
公众对一段时间内一直在发生的社会变化敏锐的、不断增强的意识,与19世纪晚期通俗新闻的巨大增长(包括杂志和报纸在数量和发行量上的增长)紧密相连。

64.A detailed study has been made of theprints using photogrammetry,a technique for obtaining measurementsthrough photographs,whichcreated a drawing showing all the curves and contours of the prints.
(被动语态)
已经使用照相测量法(一种通过照相获得测量数据的技术)对这些脚印进行了一项详细的研究,这种方法产生了一张显示脚印所有曲线和轮廓的照片。

65.Footprints thus provide US not merelywith rare impressions of the soft tissue of early hominids,butalso with evidence of upright walking that in many ways is clearer than can beobtained from the analysis of bones.
(特殊结构notmerely…but also;比较结构)
因此脚印不仅仅为我们提供早期人类软组织的稀有印记,而且为我们提供了直立行走的证据,这些证据在许多方面比骨头分析所提供的证据更清楚。

66.In fact,throughout the animal kingdom,fromsponges to certain types of worms,shellfish,and all vertebrates(creatures possessinga spinal column), there is evidence that transplants of cells or fragments oftissues into an animal are accepted only if they come from geneticallycompatible or closely related individuals.
(从句thattransplants…are accepted…evidence的同位语)
实际上,从海绵到某些种类的蠕虫、有壳的水生动物和所有的脊椎动物(有脊柱的生物)的整个动物界都有证据表明,进入动物体的细胞或组织片断移植只有在来自基因上相容或关系密切的个体时才被接受。

67.In the twenties,jazzbecame the hottest new thing in dance music, much as ragtime had at the turn ofthe century,andas would rhythm and blues in the forties,rock in the fifties,anddisco in the seventies.
(特殊结构muchas…and as…——就像以及一样)
20年代,爵士乐成为舞蹈音乐中最热门的新事物,正如世纪之交流行的拉格泰姆音乐,以及40年代节奏与布鲁斯,50年代摇滚乐,和70年代迪斯科将会流行一样。

68.They made these quilt until the adventof the Revolutionary War in 1775,when everything English came to befrowned upon.
(when引导的定语从句修饰1775flownupon——表示不满)
他们一直做这种被子,直到1775年美国革命来临,当时美国人对英国的任何东西都表示不满。

69.Growing tightly packed together andcollectively weaving a dense canopy of branches, a stand of red alder trees cantotally dominate a site to the exclusion of almost everything else.
(特殊结构tothe exclusion of 的存在)
一片红赤杨树紧紧长在一起,枝叶共同编织出一个厚密的树顶,它们能够完全占领一个地方,以致排除几乎任何其他东西的生长。

70.In taking up a new life across theAtlantic,theearly European settlers of the United States did not abandon the diversionswith which their ancestors had traditionally relieved the tedium of life.
(介词提前的定语从句:withwhich…,其中which指前面的diversions)
在越过大西洋开始新生活后,美国早期的欧洲移民并没有抛弃他们的祖先传统上借以解闷的消遣。

71. Farm dwellers in their isolation not only found it harder to locate companionsin play but also thanks to the unending demands and pressures of their work,felt it necessary to combine fun with purpose.
(Farmdwellers…not only found it harder to…but also…felt it necessary to…为句子主干)
单独居住的农场居民不仅发现在娱乐中很难找到伴侣,而且,由于来自工作的无休止的要求和压力,他们觉得必须把实用目的与乐趣结合起来。

72.The scientific investigation of anexperience as private as consciousness is frustratingly beyond the usual toolsof the experimental psychologist.
(特殊结构as…as——一样…)
对像意识这样个人化的经历的科学研究令人沮丧,它远非实验心理学家通常的研究工具所能胜任。

73.Among the species of seabirds that usethe windswept cliffs of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate,layeggs,andrear their young are common murres, Atlantic puffins,black-leggedkittiwakes,andnorthern gannets.
(倒装句:Amongthe species of seabirds…are…=…are among the species ofseabirds…)
夏天在加拿大大西洋沿岸迎风的悬崖上交配、产卵并抚育后代的海鸟中有普通海鸦、大西洋海鹦、黑脚三趾鸥和北部塘鹅。

74.The advantage of nesting on cliffs isthe immunity it gives from foxes, which cannot scale the sheer rocks,andfrom ravens and other species of gulls, which have difficulty in landing onnarrow ledges to steal eggs.
(Theadvantage of nesting on cliffs is the immunity it gives from…and from为句子主干)
在悬崖上筑巢的一大优势是可以避开不能攀登峭壁的狐狸和很难在窄峭的突出岩石上立足来偷鸟卵的渡鸦和其他鸥类。

75.Their distrust was caused,in part,by anational ideology that proclaimed farming the greatest occupation and ruralliving superior to urban living·
(that引导的从句作ideology的同位语)
他们的这种不信任部分是由一种全民性的思想意识引起的,这种意识宣称耕作是最伟大的职业,乡村生活优于城市生活。

76.A few art collectors Tames Bowdoin IIIof Boston,WilliamByrd of Virginia,andthe Aliens and Hamiltons of Philadelphia introduced European art traditions tothose colonists privileged to visit their galleries,especiallyaspiring artists, and established in their respective communities the idea ofthe value of art and the need for institutions devoted to its encouragement.
(A fewart collectors…introduced European art traditions to those colonists…andestablished…the idea…and the need…为句子主干)
几个艺术收藏家,波士顿的詹姆士·鲍德温三世、弗吉尼亚的威廉·白尔德租费城的阿里昂夫妇以及汉密尔顿夫妇将欧洲艺术传统介绍给那些被特许参观他们画廊的殖民者,尤其是有抱负的艺术家们,并在他们各自的社区形成了艺术有价值和需要设立机构以鼓励其发展的观念。

77.The achievements of the colonial artists,particularlythose of Copley,West,and Peale,lentcredence to the boast that the new nation was capable of encouraging genius andthat political liberty was congenial to the development of taste——a necessarystep before art could assume an important role in the new republic.
(Theachievements…lent credence to the boast that…and that…为句子主干,两个that引导的两个从句都作boast的同位语)
这些殖民地艺术家的成就,尤其是考伯莱、韦斯特和皮尔的成就,为新国家有能
力鼓励天才和政治自由与艺术品味的发展相一致的宣言提供了凭证——这是艺术,在新的共和国里担当重要角色之前所必须经历的一步。

78.The railroad simultaneously stripped thelandscape of the natural resources,made velocity of transport and economyof scale necessary parts of industrial production,and carried consumer goods tohouseholds.
(and连接的并列句;strip…of…——剥夺…)
铁路同时剥夺了土地的自然资源,使运输速度和规模经济成为工业生产的必需部分,并将消费品送到各家各户。

79.Moreover,in addition to its being atransportation pathway equipped with a mammoth physical plant of tracks signals,crossings,bridges,andjunctions,plustelegraph and telephone lines the railroad nurtured factory complexes,coatpiles, warehouses,andgenerating stations,formingalong its right of way what has aptly been called “the metropolitan corridor”of the American landscape.
(therailroad nurtured factory complexes…为句子主干;what引导的从句作forming的宾语)
而且,铁路除了是装备有庞大的路轨信号厂、十字路口、桥梁、交叉点以及电报和电话线的运输路径外,还产生了联合工厂、服装大楼、仓库和发电站,在它的沿途形成了美国风景中被恰如其分地叫做都市走廊的景象。

80.The Native Americans of northernCalifornia were highly skilled at basketry,using the reeds,grasses,barks,androots they found around them to fashion articles of all sorts and sizes—notonly trays,containers,andcooking pots,buthats,boats,fishtraps,babycarriers,andceremonial objects.
(fashion制作)
加利福尼亚北部的美国土著人非常擅长编织工艺,他们用在周围找到的芦苇、野草、树皮和树根来制作各种类型和大小的物件,不仅有盘子、容器和饭锅,还有帽子、小船、鱼钩、婴儿篮和仪式用品。

81.The warp was always made of willow,and themost commonly used welt was sedge root,a woody fiber that could easily beseparated into strands no thicker than a thread.
(awoody fibersedgeroot的同位语)
经向篾条总是用柳条做成,使用最多的横向篾条是莎草根,这是一种能够被轻易分成不比线条粗的多股的木质纤维。

82.Therefore,if theEarth began as a superheated sphere in space, all the rocks making up its crustmay well have been igneous and thus the ancestors of all other rocks.
(特殊结构maywell have been——可能是)
因此,如果地球开始时是太空中一个过热的球体,那么所有组成地壳的岩石都可能是火成的,因此成为所有其他岩石的祖先。


83· It was in the cities that theelements that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared--the useof money and commercial paper in place of barter,open competition in place of socialdeference and hierarchy,with an attendant rise in socialdisorder,andthe appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independentcraftspeople working with hand tools.
(It wasin the cities that the elements…first appeared为强调句;破折号之后的部分是对前面elements一词的具体说明;attendant——伴随的)
正是在城市里,第一次出现了能够与现代资本主义联系起来的因素——代替实物交换的货币与商业文件的使用,以及随着社会混乱的增加,代替社会顺从和阶层的公开竞争,还有使用煤或水力代替用手工工具劳动的独立手艺人的工厂的出现。

84.The older painters,most ofwhom were born before 1835,practiced in a mode often self-taughtand monopolized by landscape subject matter and were securely established inand fostered by the reigning American art organization, the National Academy ofDesign.
(Theolder painters…practiced in a mode…and were securely established and fosteredby…为句子主干)
老一代画家大多数出生于1835年以前,他们以一种经常是自学的方式和以风景画题材为主的形式作画。这些老画家是由当时美国艺坛上占统治地位的国家设计学院培养出来的,而且他们也在那里确立了自己的地位。

85.Most important,perhaps,wasthat they had all maintained with a certain fidelity a manner of technique andcomposition consistent with those of America's first popular landscape artist,ThomasCole,whobuilt a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery bordering the HudsonRiver.
(倒装句:Mostimportant…was that…=that…was most important)
也许最重要的是,他们都在某种程度上忠实地保持一种与美国第一位流行山水画家托马斯·科尔相一致的技巧和创作方式,后者是以描绘临近哈得逊河的恺特斯基尔山风景而建立其事业的。

86.In 15 or 30 seconds.aspeaker cannot establish the historical context that shaped the issue inquestion,cannotdetail the probable causes of the problem,and cannot examine alternative proposalsto argue that one is preferable to others.
(and连接的并列句)
1530秒的时间里,发言人无法建立形成正在讨论的问题的历史背景;不能 详细阐述问题产生的可能原因;无法仔细审查几种建议以辩论哪一种更可取。

87.Recognizing the power of television'spictures,politicianscraft televisual, staged events,called pseudo—events,designedto attract media coverage.
(三个过去分词结构stagedcalledpseudo—eventsdesignedto…都作定语,其中staged修饰eventscalledpseudoeventsdesignedto attract media coverage都修饰前面的stagedeventscraft——制作)
政治家们认识到电视画面的威力,因此精心制作旨在吸引媒体报道的经过故意安排的电视事件(被称为虚构事件)
   
88.Now,scientists have data from satellites andground—based observations from which we know that the auroral brilliance is animmense electrical discharge similar to that occurring in a neon sign.   
(介词提前的定语从句:fromwhichwhich指前面的data)   
如今,科学家们根据来自卫星和陆基观察的数据得知,极光是发光原理类似于霓虹灯的巨大的电流释放。

89.Outside the magnetosphere,blastingtoward the Earth is the solar wind,a swiftly moving plasma of ionized gaseswith its own magnetic field.   
(倒装句:blastingtoward the Earth is the solar wind…=the solar wind…is blasting toward theEarth)   
在磁气圈的外围,太阳风暴——一个有着自身磁场、迅速移动的电离化气团构成的等离子体一极快地袭向地球。
  
90.Matching the influx of foreignimmigrants into larger cities of the United States during the late nineteenthcentury was a domestic migration,from town and farm to city,withinthe United States.   
(倒装句:Matchingthe influx…was a domestic migration…=a domestic migration…was matching theinflux…)   
19世纪晚期,与外国移民流入美国较大城市相媲美的,是美国本土移民从小镇和乡村到城市的国内迁移。

91.The agricultural revolution stimulatedmany in the countryside to seek a new life in the city and made it possible forfewer farmers to feed the large concentrations of people needed to provide aworkforce for growing numbers of factories.
(and连接的并列句;过去分词结构neededto…largeconcentrations of people的定语)
农业革命刺激了许多生活在乡村的人去城市寻找新生活,而且使较少的农民有可能养活不断增加的工厂需要用来提供劳动力的集中人群。

92.The different uses to which societiesput these materials are of interest to anthropologists who may ask,forexample,whya people chooses to use clay and not copper when both items are available.
(Thedifferent uses…are of interest to anthropologists…为句子主干)
各个社会对这些材料的不同用途是人类学家所感兴趣的,例如这些人类学家或许会问,当两种东西都能够得到时,为什么一个民族会选择使用粘土而不是铜。

93.What is particularly meaningful toanthropologists is the realization that although the materials available to asociety may to some extent limit or influence what it can do artistically,thematerials by no means determine what is done.
(三个what引导的从句,第一个作主语,第二个与第三个都作宾语;that至句末的部分作realization的同位语)
对人类学家有着特殊意义的是这样一种认识:尽管一个社会能够得到的材料可能在一定程度上限制或影响它在艺术上的作为,但这些材料绝对不能决定该社会所做的事情。

94.As vitamins became recognized asessential food constituents necessary for health,it became tempting to suggest that everydisease and condition for which there had been no previous effective treatmentmight be responsive to vitamin therapy.
(复合句:as从句,主句中的it是形式主语,不定式结构tosuggest that…是真正的主语,that引导的宾语从句的主干是everydisease and condition…might be responsive to vitamin therapy)
由于维生素被认为是健康必需的食物成分,所以过去无有效疗法的每种疾病和状况都可能会对维生素疗法起反应这一建议变得很有吸引力。

95.Herein lay the beginning of whatultimately turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritionaltherapies in medicine.
(倒装句Hereinlay the beginning=the beginning lay hereinwhat引导的从句作of的宾语,修饰beginning)
这里面包含了医学中从对营养疗法价值无知到否认其价值这一过程的开端。

96.The flow of industry has passed and leftidle the loom in the attic,the soap kettle in the shed.
(leftidle the loom in the atticthesoap kettle in the shed=left the loom in the atticthesoap kettle in the shed idle,其中idletheloom…thesoap kettle …等宾语的补语)
工业之水已经流过,让织布机闲置在阁楼里,把煮皂壶送进了棚子里。

97.They are an example of a common theme inevolution,themore or less parallel development of different types of body structure andfunction for the same reason--in this case,for flight.
(themore or less parallel development of different types of body structure andfunction for the same reasonacommon theme in evolution的同位语)
它们例证了进化中的一个常见主题,即不同类型的身体结构和功能为了同一目的 而或多或少地平行发展——在这种情况下,是为了飞行的目的。

98.Indeed,had it not been for the superbpreservation of these fossils,they might well have been classified asdinosaurs.
(虚拟语气,条件从句hadit not been for the superb preservation of these fossils省略了if,助动词had提前;正常语序为ifit had not been for the superb preservation of these fossils)
确实,如果不是这些化石被极好地保存下来,它们也许会被归到恐龙里去。

99.Although governmental attempts to eradicatefairs and auctions were less than successful,the ordinary course of economicdevelopment was on the merchants' side,as increasing business specializationbecame the order of the day.
(as从句,表示伴随情况)
尽管政府清除定期集市和拍卖的努力不成功,但当不断出现的商业分工成为当时的通例时,常规的经济发展路线还是站在了商人一边。

100.Not only did they cater to the governorand his circle,butcitizens from all over the colony came to the capital for legislative sessionsof the assembly and council and the meetings of the courts of justice.
(特殊结构notonly…but;倒装Notonly did…)
不仅他们为总督和他的圈子提供服务,而且殖民地各地的公民来首府参加两院和市政会的立法会议以及法庭会议。

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