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槭树下的家 发表于 2014-10-20 20:56:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


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1.Totally without light and subjected tointense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface,thedeep—ocean bottom is a hostile environment to humans,in someways as forbidding and remote as the void of outer space.
(定语后置insome ways…)

Totally without light and subjected tointense pressures hundreds of times greater than at the Earth’s surface 原因状语
the deep—ocean bottom is a hostileenvironment to humans 主句
in some ways as forbidding and remote asthe void of outer space 后置定语,修饰a hostile environment to humans

2.Basic to any understanding of Canadain the 20 years after the Second World War is the country's impressivepopulation growth.
(倒装结构Basicto any understanding…is…)
该句的正常语序是Thecountry's impressive population growth is basic to any understanding of Canadain the 20 years after the Second World War.

3.As a result,claimsthat eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents orcures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widelypublicized and form the basis for folklore.
(同位语从句claims that…)
本句的主句结构是claimshave become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore. 那些观点广为人知,并成为一些民间说法的基础。

同位语从句是thateating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or curesdisease or provides other benefits to health:只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康


4.There are numerous unsubstantiatedreports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones,thatfertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs,thatuntreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.


5·The desperate plight of the South haseclipsed the fact that reconstruction had to be undertaken also in the North,thoughless spectacularly.

6·The new accessibility of land aroundthe periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estatedevelopment and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl.
(宾语从句whatwe now know as)

7.But these factors do not account forthe interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration ofpregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of givingbirth.
(of结构作定语:ofhow there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs…)

8.Amid rumors that there wereprehistoric mammoths wandering around the unknown region and that somewhere inits wilds was a mountain of rock salt 80 by 50 miles in extent,the twocaptains set out.

9. In the seventeenth century the organ,the clavichord,andthe harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group,asupremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of theeighteenth century.

10.A series of mechanical improvementscontinuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction ofpedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame andsteel wire of the finest quality,finally produced an instrument capableof myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almostorchestral fullness of sound,from a liquid,singingtone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.

11.The largest, later named PuebloBonito(Pretty Town)by the Spanish, rose in five terraced stories,containedmore than 800 rooms,andcould have housed a population of 1,000 or more.

12.Accustomed though we are to speaking ofthe films made before 1927 as “silent”,the film has never been,in thefull sense of the word, silent.
(倒装accustomedthough we are…=though we are accustomed…)

13.For a number of years the selectionof music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor orleader of the orchestra,and very often the principalqualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as theownership of a large personal library of musical pieces.
(特殊结构not…SOmuch as…——与其说不如说…)

14·Coincident with concerns about theaccelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation ofthe importance of biological diversity,the number of species in a particularecosystem,tothe health of the Earth and human well-being.
(倒装coincidentwith concerns…has been…=…has been coincident with concerns…)

15.The fact that half of the knownspecies are thought to inhabit the world's rain forests does not seemsurprising,consideringthe huge numbers of insects that comprise the bulk of the species.
(同位语从句factthat…;定语从句thatcomprise the bulk…)

16.To appreciate fully the diversity andabundance of life in the sea,it helps to think small.   
(特殊结构ithelps to…有帮助)

1 7.Science is built with facts just asa house is built with bricks,but a collection of facts cannot becalled science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.
(特殊结构notany more than一样不…)

18.The variation between the hemispherescorresponds to which side of the body is used to perform specific activities.
(从句whichside…is used…correspondsto的宾语

19.In a period characterized by theabandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth,DonaldBarthelme,andThomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedlyold-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality of herfiction.

20.If it were not for this faculty,theywould devour all the food available in short time and would probably starvethemselves out of existence.

21.Individualism is weakly developed infolk cultures,asare social classes.
(倒装asare social classes)

22.People in the United States in thenineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change inthe nation's economy would bring social chaos.

23.Accompanying that growth was a structuralchange that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift inthe nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and othernonagricultural pursuits.
(倒装Accompanyingthat growth was a structural change that…=A structural change…was accompanyingthat growth)

24.As the roles men and women played insociety became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home.
25.Surrounding the column are threesepals and three petals,sometimes easily recognizable as such,oftendistorted into gorgeous,weird,but always functional shapes.
(倒装Surroundingthe column are…)

26.With the growing prosperity brought onby the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it,youngpeople married and established households earlier and began to raise largerfamilies than had their predecessors during the Depression.
(倒装thanhad their predecessors—比较结构的第二部分)

27.The railroad could be and was adespoiler of nature;furthermore,in itsmanifestation of speed and noise,it might be a despoiler of human natureas well.
(关联结构couldbe and was)

28.In the railroads' prime years,between1 890 and 1920,therewere a few individuals in the United States,most of them with solid railroadingexperience behind them,whomade a profession of writing about railroading--works offering the ambience ofstations,yards,andlocomotive cabs.
(同位语mostof them;定语从句whomade a profession of writing)

29.On the other hand,when itcomes to substantive--particularly behavioral-information,crowsare less well known than many comparably common species and,forthat matter,nota few quite uncommon ones:the endangered California condor,to citeone obvious example.
(特殊结构forthat matter)

30.Keen observers and quick learners,theyare astute about the intentions of other creatures,includingresearchers,andadept at avoiding them.
(并列同位语keenobservers and quick learners)

31.These researchers have sought todemonstrate that their work can be a valuable tool not only of science but alsoof history,providingflesh insights into the daily lives of ordinary people whose existences mightnot otherwise be so well documented.

32.Legend has it that sometime toward theend of the Civil War(1861--1865)a government train carrying oxen travelingthrough the northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm andhad to be abandoned.
(特殊结构Legendhas it that…=There is a legend that…)

33.It is a lifelong process,aprocess that starts long before the start of school and one that should be anintegral part of one's entire life.
(并列同位语aprocess that…andone that…)

34.Life's transition from the sea to the landwas perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge as was the genesis of life.
(特殊结构asmuch…as;倒装aswas the genesis of life)

35.In agriculture,thetransformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators,thecotton presses,thewarehouses,andthe commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the nation's farmers thevisible sign of a vast conspiracy against them.
(特殊结构markedby;定语从句thatseemed…the visible sign…)

36.And there were factories in occupationssuch as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what wereessentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building.

37.But as the number of wage earners inmanufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4million in 1920.thenumber of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphiaburgeoned,asdid the size of the average plant.

38.What we today call American folk art was,indeed,art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday “folks” who, with increasing prosperityand leisure, created a market for art of all kinds.andespecially for portraits.

39.But in the heyday of portraitpainting--from the late eighteenth century until the 1850’s—anyone with a modicum of artistic ability couldbecome a limner as such a portraitist was called.

40.The sculptural legacy that the newUnited States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one,and infact,in1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans andcraftspeople.

41.0n the rare occasion when a fine pieceof sculpture was desired,Americans turned to foreign sculptors,as inthe 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina,commissionedthe Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt.
(句子主干是Americansturned to foreign sculptors;两个when都引导定语从句:occasionwhen…1770'swhen…as(inthe 1770's)的意思是正如”)

42.Add to this the timidity with whichunschooled artisans—originally trained as stonemasons,carpenters,orcabinetmakers--attacked the medium from which they were to make their images,and oneunderstands more fully the development of sculpture made in the United Statesin the late eighteenth century.
(add tothis the timidity…=add the timidity…to this为祈使句,相当于一个条件句:if one adds to this thetimidity…)

43.Instead of trying to keep down the bodytemperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of waterand energy,desertmammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height,andtemperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant'sgazelles.

44.Rent control is the system whereby thelocal government tells building owners how much they can charge their tenantsin rent.

45.They were spurred by the inflation ofthe 1970's,which,combinedwith California's rapid population growth,pushed housing prices,as wellas rents, to record levels.

46.Implicit in it is an aesthetic principleas well:thatthe medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with whichsculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony.
(倒装结构Implicitin it is an aesthetic principle as well=An aesthetic principleis implicit in it as wellthat引导的句子做principle的同位语)

47.With the turn-of-century Crafts movementand the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration,such aswooden African figures and masks,there arose a new urge for hands-on,personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium.
48.The common kestrel roosts and huntsalone,butthe lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks,possibly so one bird can learn fromothers where to find insect swarms.
(possiblyso=possibly so that)

49.In the 1500s when the Spanish moved intowhat later was to become the southwestern United States,theyencountered the ancestors of the modern day Pueblo,Hopi,andZuni peoples.

50.During the 1940's electron microscopesroutinely achieved resolution better than that possible with a visible lightmicroscope, while the performance of x-ray microscopes resisted improvement.
(that指代前面的resolutionpossiblewith a visible 1ight microscopethat的定语)

51.What they do is look at familiarconditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish,harmfulor affected.

52.Satire jars US out of complacence into apleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioninglyaccept are false.
(outof…into…摆脱,进入that引导的从句manyof the values…are falserealization的同位语;weunquestioningly acceptvalues的定语)

53.With spontaneous irreverence,satirerearranges perspectives.scrambles familiar objects intoincongruous juxtaposition and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstractplatitude.

54.It has lived because readers appreciatea refreshing stimulus,anirreverent reminder that they lived in a world of platitudinous thinking, cheapmoralizing, and foolish philoSOPhy.

55. Soldiers rarely hold the ideals that movies attribute to them, nor doordinary citizens devote their lives to unselfish service of humanity.

56.In addition to having to be a generalistwhile specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field,theresearcher is faced with the problem of primary materials that have little orno documentation.

57.Moreover,thedegree to which cones are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helpsdetermine which bill design is the best.
(句子主干是thedegree…helps determine…,从句towhich cones are naturally slightly open or tightly closeddegree的定语)

58.It was she,aBaltimore printer,whopublished the first official copies of the Declaration,thefirst copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded thesupport of all thirteen colonies.
(Itwas…who为强调句;thefirst copies为前面thefirst official copies的同位语)

59.By comparison with these familiaryardsticks,thedistances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,butthey too are made more manageable by using a time calibration,in thiscase the distance that light travels in one year.

60.he primary reason was skepticism thata railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of desert,mountain,andsemiarid plain could pay a profit.

61.The argument that humans,even inprehistoric times,hadsome number sense,atleast to the extent of recognizing the concepts of more and less when someobjects were added to or taken away from a small group,seemsfair.forstudies have shown that some animals possess such a sense.
(复合句,主句的主干是theargument…seems fair,其中从句thathumans…had somenumber senseargument的同位语)

62.A useful definition of an airpollutant is a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to theatmosphere in such quantities as to affect humans, animals,vegetation,ormaterials adversely.

63.The acute,growing public awareness of the socialchanges that had been taking place for some time was tied to tremendous growthin popular journalism in the late nineteenth century,includinggrowth in quantity and circulation of both magazines and newspapers.
(awareness…wastied to tremendous growth…为句子主干)

64.A detailed study has been made of theprints using photogrammetry,a technique for obtaining measurementsthrough photographs,whichcreated a drawing showing all the curves and contours of the prints.

65.Footprints thus provide US not merelywith rare impressions of the soft tissue of early hominids,butalso with evidence of upright walking that in many ways is clearer than can beobtained from the analysis of bones.
(特殊结构notmerely…but also;比较结构)

66.In fact,throughout the animal kingdom,fromsponges to certain types of worms,shellfish,and all vertebrates(creatures possessinga spinal column), there is evidence that transplants of cells or fragments oftissues into an animal are accepted only if they come from geneticallycompatible or closely related individuals.
(从句thattransplants…are accepted…evidence的同位语)

67.In the twenties,jazzbecame the hottest new thing in dance music, much as ragtime had at the turn ofthe century,andas would rhythm and blues in the forties,rock in the fifties,anddisco in the seventies.
(特殊结构muchas…and as…——就像以及一样)

68.They made these quilt until the adventof the Revolutionary War in 1775,when everything English came to befrowned upon.

69.Growing tightly packed together andcollectively weaving a dense canopy of branches, a stand of red alder trees cantotally dominate a site to the exclusion of almost everything else.
(特殊结构tothe exclusion of 的存在)

70.In taking up a new life across theAtlantic,theearly European settlers of the United States did not abandon the diversionswith which their ancestors had traditionally relieved the tedium of life.

71. Farm dwellers in their isolation not only found it harder to locate companionsin play but also thanks to the unending demands and pressures of their work,felt it necessary to combine fun with purpose.
(Farmdwellers…not only found it harder to…but also…felt it necessary to…为句子主干)

72.The scientific investigation of anexperience as private as consciousness is frustratingly beyond the usual toolsof the experimental psychologist.

73.Among the species of seabirds that usethe windswept cliffs of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate,layeggs,andrear their young are common murres, Atlantic puffins,black-leggedkittiwakes,andnorthern gannets.
(倒装句:Amongthe species of seabirds…are…=…are among the species ofseabirds…)

74.The advantage of nesting on cliffs isthe immunity it gives from foxes, which cannot scale the sheer rocks,andfrom ravens and other species of gulls, which have difficulty in landing onnarrow ledges to steal eggs.
(Theadvantage of nesting on cliffs is the immunity it gives from…and from为句子主干)

75.Their distrust was caused,in part,by anational ideology that proclaimed farming the greatest occupation and ruralliving superior to urban living·

76.A few art collectors Tames Bowdoin IIIof Boston,WilliamByrd of Virginia,andthe Aliens and Hamiltons of Philadelphia introduced European art traditions tothose colonists privileged to visit their galleries,especiallyaspiring artists, and established in their respective communities the idea ofthe value of art and the need for institutions devoted to its encouragement.
(A fewart collectors…introduced European art traditions to those colonists…andestablished…the idea…and the need…为句子主干)

77.The achievements of the colonial artists,particularlythose of Copley,West,and Peale,lentcredence to the boast that the new nation was capable of encouraging genius andthat political liberty was congenial to the development of taste——a necessarystep before art could assume an important role in the new republic.
(Theachievements…lent credence to the boast that…and that…为句子主干,两个that引导的两个从句都作boast的同位语)

78.The railroad simultaneously stripped thelandscape of the natural resources,made velocity of transport and economyof scale necessary parts of industrial production,and carried consumer goods tohouseholds.

79.Moreover,in addition to its being atransportation pathway equipped with a mammoth physical plant of tracks signals,crossings,bridges,andjunctions,plustelegraph and telephone lines the railroad nurtured factory complexes,coatpiles, warehouses,andgenerating stations,formingalong its right of way what has aptly been called “the metropolitan corridor”of the American landscape.
(therailroad nurtured factory complexes…为句子主干;what引导的从句作forming的宾语)

80.The Native Americans of northernCalifornia were highly skilled at basketry,using the reeds,grasses,barks,androots they found around them to fashion articles of all sorts and sizes—notonly trays,containers,andcooking pots,buthats,boats,fishtraps,babycarriers,andceremonial objects.

81.The warp was always made of willow,and themost commonly used welt was sedge root,a woody fiber that could easily beseparated into strands no thicker than a thread.
(awoody fibersedgeroot的同位语)

82.Therefore,if theEarth began as a superheated sphere in space, all the rocks making up its crustmay well have been igneous and thus the ancestors of all other rocks.
(特殊结构maywell have been——可能是)

83· It was in the cities that theelements that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared--the useof money and commercial paper in place of barter,open competition in place of socialdeference and hierarchy,with an attendant rise in socialdisorder,andthe appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independentcraftspeople working with hand tools.
(It wasin the cities that the elements…first appeared为强调句;破折号之后的部分是对前面elements一词的具体说明;attendant——伴随的)

84.The older painters,most ofwhom were born before 1835,practiced in a mode often self-taughtand monopolized by landscape subject matter and were securely established inand fostered by the reigning American art organization, the National Academy ofDesign.
(Theolder painters…practiced in a mode…and were securely established and fosteredby…为句子主干)

85.Most important,perhaps,wasthat they had all maintained with a certain fidelity a manner of technique andcomposition consistent with those of America's first popular landscape artist,ThomasCole,whobuilt a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery bordering the HudsonRiver.
(倒装句:Mostimportant…was that…=that…was most important)

86.In 15 or 30 seconds.aspeaker cannot establish the historical context that shaped the issue inquestion,cannotdetail the probable causes of the problem,and cannot examine alternative proposalsto argue that one is preferable to others.
1530秒的时间里,发言人无法建立形成正在讨论的问题的历史背景;不能 详细阐述问题产生的可能原因;无法仔细审查几种建议以辩论哪一种更可取。

87.Recognizing the power of television'spictures,politicianscraft televisual, staged events,called pseudo—events,designedto attract media coverage.
(三个过去分词结构stagedcalledpseudo—eventsdesignedto…都作定语,其中staged修饰eventscalledpseudoeventsdesignedto attract media coverage都修饰前面的stagedeventscraft——制作)
88.Now,scientists have data from satellites andground—based observations from which we know that the auroral brilliance is animmense electrical discharge similar to that occurring in a neon sign.   

89.Outside the magnetosphere,blastingtoward the Earth is the solar wind,a swiftly moving plasma of ionized gaseswith its own magnetic field.   
(倒装句:blastingtoward the Earth is the solar wind…=the solar wind…is blasting toward theEarth)   
90.Matching the influx of foreignimmigrants into larger cities of the United States during the late nineteenthcentury was a domestic migration,from town and farm to city,withinthe United States.   
(倒装句:Matchingthe influx…was a domestic migration…=a domestic migration…was matching theinflux…)   

91.The agricultural revolution stimulatedmany in the countryside to seek a new life in the city and made it possible forfewer farmers to feed the large concentrations of people needed to provide aworkforce for growing numbers of factories.
(and连接的并列句;过去分词结构neededto…largeconcentrations of people的定语)

92.The different uses to which societiesput these materials are of interest to anthropologists who may ask,forexample,whya people chooses to use clay and not copper when both items are available.
(Thedifferent uses…are of interest to anthropologists…为句子主干)

93.What is particularly meaningful toanthropologists is the realization that although the materials available to asociety may to some extent limit or influence what it can do artistically,thematerials by no means determine what is done.

94.As vitamins became recognized asessential food constituents necessary for health,it became tempting to suggest that everydisease and condition for which there had been no previous effective treatmentmight be responsive to vitamin therapy.
(复合句:as从句,主句中的it是形式主语,不定式结构tosuggest that…是真正的主语,that引导的宾语从句的主干是everydisease and condition…might be responsive to vitamin therapy)

95.Herein lay the beginning of whatultimately turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritionaltherapies in medicine.
(倒装句Hereinlay the beginning=the beginning lay hereinwhat引导的从句作of的宾语,修饰beginning)

96.The flow of industry has passed and leftidle the loom in the attic,the soap kettle in the shed.
(leftidle the loom in the atticthesoap kettle in the shed=left the loom in the atticthesoap kettle in the shed idle,其中idletheloom…thesoap kettle …等宾语的补语)

97.They are an example of a common theme inevolution,themore or less parallel development of different types of body structure andfunction for the same reason--in this case,for flight.
(themore or less parallel development of different types of body structure andfunction for the same reasonacommon theme in evolution的同位语)
它们例证了进化中的一个常见主题,即不同类型的身体结构和功能为了同一目的 而或多或少地平行发展——在这种情况下,是为了飞行的目的。

98.Indeed,had it not been for the superbpreservation of these fossils,they might well have been classified asdinosaurs.
(虚拟语气,条件从句hadit not been for the superb preservation of these fossils省略了if,助动词had提前;正常语序为ifit had not been for the superb preservation of these fossils)

99.Although governmental attempts to eradicatefairs and auctions were less than successful,the ordinary course of economicdevelopment was on the merchants' side,as increasing business specializationbecame the order of the day.

100.Not only did they cater to the governorand his circle,butcitizens from all over the colony came to the capital for legislative sessionsof the assembly and council and the meetings of the courts of justice.
(特殊结构notonly…but;倒装Notonly did…)



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