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o02220o 发表于 2017-11-14 09:40:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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The main exception to primate researchers’ general pattern has been the study of male care among monogamous primates. It has been known for over 200 years, ever since a zoologist- illustrator named George Edwards decided to watch the behavior of pet marmosets in a London garden, that among certain species of New World monkeys males contributed direct care for infants that equaled or exceeded that given by females. Mothers among marmosets and tamarins typically give birth to twins, as often as twice a year, and to court the female in her staggering reproductive burden the male carries the infant at all times except when the mother is actually suckling it. It was assumed by Kleiman that monogamy and male confidence of paternity were essential to the evolution of such care, and at the same time, it was assumed by Symons and others that monogamy among primates must be fairly rare.
Recent findings, however, make it necessary to reverse this picture. First of all, monogamy among primates turns out to be rather more frequent than previously believed (either obligate or facultive monogamy can be documented for some 17-20 percent of extant primates) and second, male care turns out to be far more extensive than previously thought and not necessarily confined to monogamous species, according to Hrdy. Whereas previously, it was assumed that monogamy and male certainty of paternity facilitated the evolution of male care, it now seems appropriate to consider the alternative possibility that the extraordinary capacity of male primates to look out for the fates of infants did in some way pre-adapt members of this order for the sort of close, long-term relationships between males and females that, under some ecological circumstances, leads to monogamy. Either scenario could be true. The point is that on the basis of present knowledge there is no reason to view male care as a restricted or specialized phenomenon. In sum, though it remains true that mothers among virtually all primates devote more time and/ or energy to rearing infants than do males, males nonetheless play a more varied and critical role in infant survival than is generally realized.

The author of the passage suggests that it is “appropriate to consider the alternative possibility” because the previous view
A. results in a contradiction
B. depends on problematic data
C. appears less definite given certain facts
D. conflates two distinct phenomena
E. overlooks a causal relationship between correlated phenomena

Which of the following statement, if true, would provide the greatest support to “the alternative possibility”?
A. The number of primate species in which male care of infants is exhibited is greater than the number of primate species that practice monogamy.
B. Male care of infants among primates can be seen earlier in the evolutionary record than can monogamy among primates.
C. Monogamous relationships among primates can be found in species living in a variety of physical environments.
D. Most primate species that practice monogamy do not show any evidence of male care of infants.
E. Male care of infants can be observed in some primate species that lack male confidence of paternity.
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第一道看到有选c的也有选e的
第二道在网上看到答案都不一样 a,b,d都有
然后我就懵逼了。。应该选什么??求大神帮助!!!万分感谢
UCB2014 发表于 2017-11-14 10:15:19 | 显示全部楼层
第一个选 C,第二题选B吧,照顾婴儿的现象比一夫一妻制出现的早?
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aoao5881341 发表于 2017-11-14 11:21:11 | 显示全部楼层
我也觉得是C和B,B说明了先后care,然后最终这个能力导致了monogamy的出现、
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 楼主| o02220o 发表于 2017-11-15 03:29:41 | 显示全部楼层
UCB2014 发表于 2017-11-14 10:15
第一个选 C,第二题选B吧,照顾婴儿的现象比一夫一妻制出现的早?

哦哦第二题明白了~~谢谢 那第一个为什么e不对呢??
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gulinaza 发表于 2017-11-15 07:30:26 | 显示全部楼层
感觉2题作者说这句话时,是基于前面first of all和second两个事实,加之后文Either scenario could be true,说明作者认为两种假设即causual relationship都可能,也就不能说是overlooks一种了,个人理解哈
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gulinaza 发表于 2017-11-15 07:34:26 | 显示全部楼层
gulinaza 发表于 2017-11-15 07:30
感觉2题作者说这句话时,是基于前面first of all和second两个事实,加之后文Either scenario could be true ...

第一题,看错了
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