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杨鹏GRE长难句-No.18

已有 65 次阅读2020-8-5 05:12 |个人分类:gre长难句| 长难句

1、The physicist rightly dreads precise argument, since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed, whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.
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物理学家恐惧于那些精确无误的论据不无道理,因为某种只有在它是精确无误的条件下才令人置信的论据,一旦它赖于建立其上的假设稍有变化,便会失去它一部的作用;而与此相反,一个尽管并不精确无误但却令人置信的论据,在其基本假设(underlying assumption)稍微受干扰的情况下,仍然有可能是站得住脚的。
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1 The physicist rightly dreads precise argument,
物理学家恐惧于那些精确无误的论据不无道理
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2 since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force
因为某种只有在它是精确无误的条件下才令人置信的论据….便会失去它一部的作用;
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3 if the assumptions on which it (an argument) is based are slightly changed,
一旦它赖于建立其上的假设稍有变化
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4 whereas an argument that is convincing though(=even though it is) imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.
而与此相反,一个尽管并不精确无误但却令人置信的论据,在其基本假设(underlying assumption)稍微受干扰的情况下,仍然有可能是站得住脚的。

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本句since之前的部分含有标准的S(The physicist)+V(dreads)+O(argument)结构,而since之后明显应该是原因状语(从句)的部分,所以句首的SVO就是整句的主句。下面我们来仔细分析since后面的部分:
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第一行末尾的that紧跟an argument之后,显然做an argument的后置定语从句。that is convincing 是一个完整的主系表结构,only if 则引导了这个定语从句自身的(即小级别)条件状语从句it is precise (仍是一个完整的主系表结构);
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接下来我们遇到了loses,since到loses之间是两个主系表从句,有各自的系动词,于是loses不属于这两个从句,只能与an argument对应,这一点也可从单复数上佐证。loses 与后面的 all its force 形成动宾结构,其中it 指代前文的an argument;
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接下来的if引导了条件状语从句the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed。其中on which it is based 做the assumptions的后置定语从句,同样的,it指前文的an argument。忽略定语从句,我们得到if the assumptions are slightly changed;
whereas后that is convincing though imprecise紧跟着an argument后做它的后置定语从句。忽略掉它我们得到whereas an argument may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions.
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至此since直到结尾我们已拆解完毕。即since后是个由whereas分割连接的并列句,这个并列句前一个子句的主语argument后跟了定语从句,且这个定语从句有自己的小一个级别的条件状语从句only if it is precise。同时第一个子句本身也有自己的条件状语从句ifthe assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed;
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whereas后出现了第二个子句,这个子句的主语an argument同样带了自己的后置定语从句。
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从since到结尾的大级别原因状语从句包含了两个并列子句、两个后置定语从句和两个条件状语从句(不同级别)。多个从句的层层嵌套增加了我们读懂整句的难度,但只要我们仔细梳理和分解,层层展开,理清各个从句、成分的作用,最终,这种难度的长句还是可以攻克的。

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